1966: Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckman: the "heterosexual" as "deviant"

In their ground-breaking book The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Doubleday, 1966), Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckman discuss psychotherapy as an apparatus for regulating deviancy. But in an eye-opening move, their deviant is a heterosexual individual in a homosexual society. These authors' imagining the heterosexual as deviant is, for its time, an extremely unusual  reversal of the then common treatment of the homosexual as exemplary deviant. 

For example, in a collectiviey that has institutionalized military homosexuality the stubbornly heterosexual individual is a sure canditate for therapy, not only because his sexual interests constitute a threat to the combat efficiency of his unit of warrior-lovers, but also becauuse his deviance is psychologically subversive to the others' spontaneous viriility. After all, some of them, perhaps "subconsciously," might be tempted to follow his example. On a more fundamental level, the deviant's conduct challenges the societal reality as such, putting in question its taken-for-granted cognitive ("virile men by nature love one anther") and normative ("virile men should love one another") operating procedures. Indeed, the deviant [heterosexual] probably stands as a living insult to the gods, who love one another in the heavens as their devotees do on earth. Such radical deviance requires therapeutic practice soundly grounded in therapeutic theory. There must be a theory of deviance (a "pathology," that is) that accounts for this shocking condition (say, by positing demonic possession). There must be a body of diagnostic concepts . . . which optimally not only permit precise specification of acute conditions, but also detection of "latent heterosexuality" and the prompt adoption of preventive measures. Finally, there must be conceptualization of the curative process itself (say, a catalogue of exorcizing techniques, each with an adequate theoretical foundation). 

The afflicted heterosexual, the authors' add, may internalize a sense of his deviance, with positive therapeutic results:

In our example, the conceptual machinery may be so designed as to arouse guilt in the individual (as, a "heterosexual panic"), a not too difficult feat if his primary socialization has been minimally successful. Under the pressure of this guilt, the individual will come to accept subjectively the conceptualization of his condition with which the therapeutic practitioners confront him; he develops "insight," and the diagnosis becomes subjectively realto him. Successful therapy . . . resocializes the deviant into the objective reality of the symbolic universe of the society. There is, of course, considerable subjective satisfaction in such a return to "normalcy." The individual may now return to the amourous embrace of his platoon commander in the happy knowledge that he has "found himself," and that he is right once more in the eyes of the gods.

Peter L. Berger and Thomas Luckman, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge (Doubleday, 1966; Anchor Books, July 11, 1967), pages 112-15. The reference to "institutionalized military homosexuality" is obviously to ancient Greece: see "Homosexuality in the militaries of ancient Greece," accessed October 28, 2015 from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Homosexuality_in_the_militaries_of_ancient_Greece. But note that many recent scholars no longer speak of homosexuality or heterosexuality in ancient Greece, arguing that the sexual system did not make institutionalize these concepts.