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Annotated Bibliography: Social Scientists and Homophiles, 1950s and 1960s

Copyright (c) by Ann Ripberger, 2008. All rights reserved.

Achilles, Nancy. 1967. “The Development of the Homosexual Bar as an Institution.” From Sociological Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies, 1998, 68-76. Edited by Nardi, Peter M. and Schneider, Beth E. London : Routledge.

This text was Achilles dissertation at the University of Chicago and it is was presented to the Human Development Community in 1964. It was first published in Gagnon’s and Simon’s (eds.), Sexual Deviance. It is an analysis of gay and lesbian bars from a sociological perspective. Characteristics of the bars along with the life cycle of the bars are traced. The bars are identified as the place where a homosexual community is formed and other options are not presented. Achilles logic appears over simplified, though the work is relevant to the study of bar culture. The article is primary focused on gay male culture.

Boxer, Andrew M. and Carrier, Joseph M. 1998. "Evelyn Hooker: A Life Remembered". Journal of Homosexuality. 36(1): 1-17.

This article was published as a memorial tribute after Evelyn Hooker’s death in 1996. The article provides an overview of Hooker’s life, including some information about her childhood and how she came to the field of psychology. Her research is discussed and quotes from Hooker herself are incorporated into the article. The writers also discuss Hooker’s personality and relationships with other professionals. 
Boxer was the co-founder and director of the Evelyn Hooker Center for Gay and Lesbian Mental Health. He was also a member of the faculty at the University of Chicago ’s Department of Psychiatry. He passed away in 1999. 
Carrier has a PhD in anthropology and is currently working as a HIV counselor and research with the Orange County Department of Public Health.

D’Emilio, John. 1983. “Chapter Six: Dual Identity and Lesbian autonomy: The Beginning of Separate Organizing Among Women.” In Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities, 92-107. University of Chicago.

This is an excerpt from D’Emilio’s book Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. The book as a whole provides an overview of the homophile movement. This section provides the reader with an overview of lesbian history (beginning with Victorian America), while particularly focusing on the formation of the Daughters of Bilitis and how it worked with the Mattachine Society. D’Emilio explains how economic and societal forces have affected the development of the lesbian identity. His interpretation of how women’s place in the workforce has influenced the formation of a lesbian identity is particularly interesting.
D’Emilio is currently a Professor in both the History and Gender & Women’s Studies Departments at the University of Illinois at Chicago . He is considered one of the founders of Gay and Lesbian studies. Other publications include Sexual Politics, Sexual CommunitiesIntimate Matters (with Estelle Freedman), The World Turned, and Lost Prophet.

Gagnon, John H. and Simon, William. 1973. “Chapter 6: A Conformity Greater Then Deviance: The Lesbian.” From Sexual Conduct, 176-216. Aldine Transaction.

This book examines sexuality from a non-biological, social psychological standpoint. This chapter focuses specifically on lesbians and their experiences. The information presented is based on interviews conducted with 20 lesbians. Topics include becoming a lesbian, the lesbian community, lesbians’ experiences in the workplace, lesbians’ relationships with family and friends, lesbians; search for love, and how lesbians achieve self-acceptance.
While this work was ground breaking, it is not without its problems. First we don’t know much about the methodology used by Gagnon and Simon apart from the fact they interviewed 20 lesbians. This begs the question, is the information presented representative of the lesbian community? Also some of the ideas presented seem rather patronizing. At times, the authors appear to be jumping to conclusions that are based on little evidence. Nevertheless, it is an important text.
John H. Gagnon is an Emeritus Professor at Stony Brook University in New York . His research interests include: AIDS, simulations, sexual conduct, social control, and cognition. Other published works include The Sexual Scene (with William Simon), Human Sexuality in Today’s WorldThe Social Organization of Sexuality (co-author) and An Interpretation of Desire: Essays in the Study of Sexuality.
William Simon received his PhD from university of Chicago. He has done research at the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University . Presently he is a Professor of Sociology at the University of Houston , Texas.

Miller, Neil. 1995. Out of the Past: Gay and Lesbian History from 1869 to the Present. New York: Vintage.

This book covers gay and lesbian history from 1869 to 1995. The text itself, though quite long, is a very easy read. Miller is currently a lecturer in English at Tufts University.

McIntosh, Mary. 1968. “The Homosexual Role.” From Sociological Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies, 1998, 68-76. Edited by Nardi, Peter M. and Schneider, Beth E. London : Routledge.

Simon, William and Gagnon, John H. 1967 “Homosexuality: The Formulation of a Sociological Perspective.” From Sociological Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies, 1998, 59-67. Edited by Nardi, Peter M. and Schneider, Beth E. London : Routledge.

Whitam, Fredrick L. 1977. “The Homosexual Role: A Reconsideration.” From Sociological Perspectives in Lesbian and Gay Studies, 1998, 77-83. Edited by Nardi, Peter M. and Schneider, Beth E. London : Routledge.

Other Useful Publications:

Newton, Esther. 1993. “Chapter Nine: Just One of the Boys.” From Cherry Grove, Fire Island: Sixty Years in America ’s First Gay Town. Beacon Press.

This book is a history of the popular New York summer retreat located on Fire Island . This chapter explains how the working-class, butch lesbians (“dykes” or “girls”) and the upper class lesbians (“ladies”) interacted on the island. Prior to the 1960s, the Grove was dominated by upper class lesbians who spent their summer vacationing there. In the 1960s and 1970s, the Grove was dominated by butch lesbians who came to the island to work as bartenders, waitresses, haircutters, house painters, etc. At first the “ladies” and the “girls” clashed. Also, unlike the “ladies”, the “girls” were not accustomed to socializing with gay men. In the 60s, the “girls” for the most part remained in their cliques and did not socialize outside their circle. In the 70s, the “girls” started to break out of their cliques and socialize with others in the Grove. The “dykes” also began to challenge the gay male dominated Grove society. A few “dykes” began buying cottages, and this threatened the men in the Grove. Tension began to develop between the gay men and the “dykes.”
Dr. Esther Newton did her undergraduate work at the University of Michigan and completed her PhD at the University of Chicago on a study of drag and drag queens. She is a founding member of the Purchase College , and has been on the faculty since 1971. A Purchase, she helped establish the Anthropology Program, the Women's Studies Program, and the Lesbian/Gay Studies Program. She is a pioneer in the field of lesbian and gay studies and an internationally recognized expert. She has also been honored by the Purchase College Student Union and nominated twice for the SUNY Chancellor's Award for Excellence in Teaching.
Newton has also served on the editorial boards of a number of scholarly journals and as an adviser for documentary films. She taught the graduate level course on lesbain history at the University of Michigan that is responsible for the publication of this website.

Quimby, Karin and Williams, Walter L. “Unmasking the Homophile in 1950s Los Angeles : An Archival Record.” From Queer Frontiers: Millennial Geographies, Genders, and Generations, 2000, 166-195. Edited by Boone, Joseph Allen et al. University of Wisconsin Press.

This excerpt provides a history of the homophile movement as it developed in Los Angles. Most of the text is devoted to the development of the Mattachine Society and the break between Mattachine and ONE. The origins of the ONE Institute/International Lesbian and Gay Archives is traced.

Stein, Marc. “Chapter 7: ‘Come Out! Come Out! Wherever You Are!’ 1960.” 2000. From City of Sisterly and Brotherly Love: Lesbian and Gay Philadelphia, 1945-1972, 179-199. University of Chicago Press.

This chapter presents the history of the homophile movement as it developed Philadelphia . It is suggested that the conflicts that plagued the homophile organizations in other cities were not as prevalent in Philadelphia . Philadelphians were also some of the most militant leaders of the homophile movement.
Stein is an Associate Professor for the History Department at York University is Toronto . He is also the Coordinator of Sexuality Studies Program. He is extremely well published. He is also the Editor-in-Chief of the Encyclopedia of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender History in America.