facebook twitter

Missing Documents of LGBTQ History

Jonathan Ned Katz, Founder and Co-Director of OutHistory.org, requests that information about any of the following subjects, or others, be sent to him at outhistory@gmail.com  If you find information based on any of the following leads you can support OutHistory's work by reporting your findings to the site. We are glad to credit all researchers.

----------
Arthur III, Chester (Gavin Arthur, 1901-1972).
See Carpenter below. Gerard Koskovich writes: "the Chester Arthur referred to is Chester Alan Arthur III, better known as Gavin Arthur (1901–1972), grandson of U.S. President Chester A. Arthur. He discusses his interactions with Carpenter in his book "The Circle of Sex" (Pan-Graphic Press, 1962; expanded edition: University Books, 1966). Gavin Arthur is one of the subjects of a current exhibition at the GLBT History Museum in San Francisco: http://www.glbthistory.org/museum/lavender-tinted-glasses/

----------
Asian American LGBTQ History Timeline: Help OutHistory create a chronological bibliography of writings, political actions, poitical organizations, etc.

----------
Bernstein, Allen.
Who did he know in Boston? His military records? Who was his married male homosexual friend? See OutHistory feature on Bernstein. 

----------
Black Drag Queens Who Fought Before Stonewall, 1888, Washington, D.C. What can be discovered about the history of the individuals mentioned? See: http://outhistory.org/exhibits/show/channing-joseph/drag-party

----------
Cannon Towel ads: "True Towel Tales", 1944-1945. How did they come about?  What was the response at the time?

-----------
Carpenter, Edward, and the U.S. What can be discovered about the various people that Carpenter corresponded with in the U.S., or who met Carpenter when they were traveling abroad, or who circulated his writing in the U.S.? All the references are to Sheila Rowbotham, Edward Carpenter: A Life of Liberty and Love (Verso: 2008). In the index find references to the following:

Arthur, Chester;
Born, Helena;
Channing, William Henry;
Dalmas, Philip;
Daniel, Miriam;
Goldman, Emma;
Heron, George;
Lloyd, J. W. 
Nicol, R. A. (also consult Katz's Gay Lesbian Almanac for more on Nicol) 
Riley, J. H. Nathan Riley writes: "Is J. H. Riley John Hervey Riley, a Canadian perhaps?"
Sanger, Margaret;
Stafford, Harry;
Traubel, Horace;
Walt Whitman

----------
C., H.:
 Who was Havelock Ellis's American inverted correspondent "H.C.?" 
Accessed March 22, 2016 from: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/13611/13611-h/13611-h.htm#2_Footnote_165    The papers of Havelock Ellis are at Yale University.  Accessed March 22, 2016 from http://drs.library.yale.edu/HLTransformer/HLTransServlet?stylename=yul.ead2002.xhtml.xsl&pid=mssa:ms.0195&query=&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&hlon=yes&big=&adv=&filter=&hitPageStart=&sortFields=&view=all 

----------
Friendship and Freedom. Newspaper/periodical published by Henry Gerber in 1924 and/or 1925 for the Society for Human Rights, Chicago. Two editions supposed to have been published. A copy of Friendship and Freedom appears among a group of other early homophile publications. Jonathan Ned Katz suspects that copies of Friendship and Freedom may exist in a Chicago U.S. Post Office archive or a Federal Post Office archive, or a Chicago police archive, or a French or German archive. <Citations to follow.>

----------
K.,  Dr.  Who was Havelock Ellis's American woman correspondent Dr. K.? 
The papers of Havelock Ellis are at Yale University.  Accessed March 22, 2016 from http://drs.library.yale.edu/HLTransformer/HLTransServlet?stylename=yul.ead2002.xhtml.xsl&pid=mssa:ms.0195&query=&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&hlon=yes&big=&adv=&filter=&hitPageStart=&sortFields=&view=all

In Sexual Inversion, Havelock Ellis writes: "I am indebted to . . . Dr. K., an American woman physician, who kindly assisted me in obtaining cases, and has also supplied an appendix" (quote from "Preface").

The appendix is probably the following, although Ellis in a footnote claims to have created this: "Appendix B, The School Friendships of GIrls." Accessed March 22, 2015 from: https://www.gutenberg.org/files/13611/13611-h/13611-h.htm#2_APPENDIX_B

See also: Re homosexual women: "In all such cases," writes an American woman physician, "I would recommend that the moral sense be trained and fostered, and the persons allowed to keep their individuality, being taught to remember always that they are different from others, rather sacrificing their own feelings or happiness when necessary. It is good discipline for them, and will serve in the long run to bring them more favor and affection than any other course. This quality or idiosyncrasy is not essentially evil, but, if rightly used, may prove a blessing to others and a power for good in the life of the individual; nor does it reflect any discredit upon its possessor." See https://www.gutenberg.org/files/13611/13611-h/13611-h.htm#2_Footnote_208

in Havelock Ellis, Studies in the Psychology of Sex, Volume II, Sexual Inversion. Third Edition, Revised and Enlarged. 1927.

The papers of Havelock Ellis are at Yale University.  Accessed March 22, 2016 from http://drs.library.yale.edu/HLTransformer/HLTransServlet?stylename=yul.ead2002.xhtml.xsl&pid=mssa:ms.0195&query=&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&hlon=yes&big=&adv=&filter=&hitPageStart=&sortFields=&view=all

----------
Lind, Earl/Ralph Werther/Jennie June. 
If the birth name of this transgender author could be discovered based on clues in her/his published autobiographies it would lead to a great deal of extremely important LGBTQ history research. See the separate page titled Werther/Lind/June Research for a detailed listing of research in progress: http://www.outhistory.org/exhibits/show/katz-writing-work/wertheresearch

----------
Melville, Herman.
What did he write to Havelock Ellis? The Barrett Library contains nineteen letters of Herman Melville, including the last known to survive, written in August, 1890, to Havelock Ellis about the history of the Melville family, and the manuscripts of three of his poems, there is also a small group of family materials. Accessed March 22, 2016 from http://small.library.virginia.edu/collections/featured/the-clifton-waller-barrett-library-of-american-literature/ 

-----------
Schlegel, Carl. Any additional information aboout this important, relatively unknown figure
would be greatly appreciated. See: The First Homosexual Emancipation Activist in the US?http://outhistory.org/exhibits/show/schlegel/contents

-----------
Sodom in Union Square; or Revelations of the Doings in 14th St. by an Ex-Police Captain
.
39 page pamphlet, 1879. Cited in: Henry L. Minton, Departing from Deviance: A History of Homosexual Rights and Emancipatory Science in America (Chiago: University of Chicago Press, December 15, 2001) note 59, page 306. JNK: I also recall seeing a listing for this in the National Union Catalogue.

----------
S, R. Who was Havelock Ellis's American Correspondent R. S.? Here is his history. 
The papers of Havelock Ellis are at Yale University.  Accessed March 22, 2016 from http://drs.library.yale.edu/HLTransformer/HLTransServlet?stylename=yul.ead2002.xhtml.xsl&pid=mssa:ms.0195&query=&clear-stylesheet-cache=yes&hlon=yes&big=&adv=&filter=&hitPageStart=&sortFields=&view=all

HISTORY IX.—R. S., aged 31, American of French descent. "Upon the question of heredity I may say that I belong to a reasonably healthy, prolific, and long-lived family. On my father's side, however, there is a tendency toward pulmonary troubles. He himself died of pneumonia, and two of his brothers and a nephew of consumption. Neither of my parents were morbid or eccentric. Excepting for a certain shyness with strangers, my father was a very masculine man. My mother is somewhat nervous, but is not imaginative, nor at all demonstrative in her affections. I think that my own imaginative and artistic temperament must come from my father's side. Perhaps my French ancestry has something to do with it. With the exception of my maternal grandfather, all my progenitors have been of French descent. My mother's father was English.

"I possess a mercurial temperament and a strong sense of the ludicrous. Though my physique is slight, my health has always been excellent. Of late years especially I have been greatly given to introspection and self-scrutiny, but have never had any hallucinations, mental delusions, nor hysterics, and am not at all superstitious. Spiritualistic manifestations, hypnotic dabblings, and the other psychical fads of the day have little or no attraction for me. In fact, I have always been skeptical of them, and they rather bore me.

"At school I was an indolent, dreamy boy, shirking study, but otherwise fairly docile to my teachers. From earliest childhood I have indulged in omnivorous taste for reading, my particular likings being for travels, esthetics, metaphysical and theological subjects, and more recently for poetry and certain forms of mysticism. I never cared much for history or for scientific subjects. From the beginning, too, I showed a strong artistic bent, and possessed an overpowering love for all things beautiful. As a child I was passionately fond of flowers, loved to be in the woods and alone, and wanted to become an artist. My parents opposed the latter wish and I gave way before their opposition.

"In me the homosexual nature is singularly complete, and is undoubtedly congenital. The most intense delight of my childhood (even when a tiny boy in a nurse's charge) was to watch acrobats and riders at the circus. This was not so much for the skillful feats as on account of the beauty of their persons. Even then I cared chiefly for the more lithe and graceful fellows. People told me that circus actors were wicked, and would steal little boys, and so I came to look upon my favorites as half-devil and half-angel. When I was older and could go about alone, I would often hang around the tents of travelling shows in hope of catching a glimpse of the actors. I longed to see them naked, without their tights, and used to lie awake at night thinking of them and longing to be loved and embraced by them. A certain bareback rider, a sort of jockey, used especially to please me on account of his handsome legs, which were clothed in fleshlings up to his waist, leaving his beautiful loins uncovered by a breech-clout. There was nothing consciously sensual about these reveries, because at the time I had no sensual feelings or knowledge. Curiously enough, the women-actors repelled me then (as they do to this day) quite as strongly as I was attracted by the men.

"I used, also, to take great pleasure in watching men and boys in swimming, but my opportunities for seeing them thus were extremely rare. I never dared let my comrades know how I felt about these matters, but the sight of a well-formed, naked youth or man would fill me (and does now) with mingled feelings of bashfulness, anguish, and delight. I used to tell myself endless stories of a visionary castle inhabited by beautiful boys, one of whom was especially my dear chum.

"It was always the prince, in fairy tales, who held my interest or affection. I was constantly falling in love with handsome boys whom I never knew; nor did I ever try to mix in their company, for I was abashed before them, and had no liking nor aptitude for boyish games. Sometimes I played with girls because they were more quiet and gentler, but I cared for them little or not at all.

"As is usually the case, my parents neglected to impart to me any sexual knowledge, and such as I possessed was gathered furtively from tainted sources, bad boys' talk at school and elsewhere. My elders let me know, in a vague way, that talk of the kind was wicked, and natural timidity and a wish to be 'good' kept me from learning much about sexual matters. As I never went to boarding-school, I was spared, perhaps, many of the degrading initiations administered by knowing boys at such institutions.

"In spite of what has been said above, I do not believe that I was sexually very precocious, and even now I feel that more pleasure would ensue from merely contemplating than from personal contact with the object of my amorous attentions.

"As I grew older there came, of course, an undefined physical longing, but it was the beauty of those I admired which mainly appealed to me. At the time of puberty I spontaneously acquired the habit of masturbation. Once while bathing I found that a pleasant feeling came with touching the sexual organs. It was not long before I was confirmed in the habit. At first I practised it but seldom, but afterward much more frequently (say, once a week), though at times months have elapsed without any indulgences on my part. I have only had erotic dreams three or four times in my life. The masturbation habit I regard as morally reprehensible and have made many resolutions to break it, but without avail. It affords me only the most momentary satisfaction, and is always followed by remorseful scruples.

"I have never in my life had any sexual feeling for a woman, nor any sexual connection with any woman whatsoever. The very thought of such a thing is excessively repugnant and disgusting to me. This is true, apart from any moral considerations, and I do not think I could bring myself to it. I am not attracted by young women in any way. Even their physical beauty has little or no charm for me, and I often wonder how men can be so affected by it. On the other hand, I am not a woman-hater, and have several strong friends of the opposite sex. They are, however, women older than myself, and our friendship is based solely on certain intellectual or esthetic tastes we have in common.

"I have had practically no physical relations with men; at any rate, none specifically sexual. Once, when about 19 or 21, I started to embrace a beautifully formed youth with whom I was sleeping, but timidity and scruples got the better of my feelings, and, as my bedfellow was not amorously inclined toward me, nothing came of it. A few years after this I became strongly attached to a friend whom I had already known for several years. Circumstances threw us very much together during one summer. It was now that I felt for the first time the full shock of love. He returned my affection, but both of us were shy of showing our feelings or speaking of them. Often when walking together after night-fall we would put our arms about each other. Sometimes, too, when sleeping together we would lie in close contact, and my friend once suggested that I put my legs against his. He frequently begged me to spend the night with him; but I began to fear my feelings, and slept with him but seldom. We neither of us had any definite ideas about homosexual relations, and, apart from what I have related above, we had no further contact with each other. A few months after our amorous feelings had developed my friend died. His death caused me great distress, and my naturally religious temperament began to manifest itself quite strongly. At this time, too, I first read some writings of Mr. Addington Symonds, and certain allusions in his work, coupled with my recent experience, soon stirred me to a full consciousness of my inverted nature.

"About eight months after my friend's death I happened to meet in a strange town a youth of about my own age who exerted upon me a strong and instant attraction. He possessed a refined, handsome face, was gracefully built, and, though he was rather undemonstrative, we soon became fast friends.

"We were together only for a few days, when I was obliged to leave for my home, and the parting caused me great unhappiness and depression. A few months after we spent a vacation together. One day during our trip we went swimming, and undressed in the same bathhouse. When I saw my friend naked for the first time he seemed to me so beautiful that I longed to throw my arms about him and cover him with kisses. I kept my feelings hidden, however, hardly daring to look at him for fear of being unable to restrain my desires. Several times afterward, in his room, I saw him stripped, with the same effect upon my emotions. Until I had seen him naked my feelings for him were not of a physical character, but afterward I longed for actual contact, but only by embraces and kisses. Though he was fond of me, he had absolutely no amorous longings for me, and being a simple, pure-minded fellow, would have loathed me for mine and my inverted nature. I was careful never to let him discover it, and I was made very unhappy when he confided that he was in love with a young girl whom he wished to marry. This episode took place several years ago, and though we are still friends my emotional feelings for him have cooled considerably.

"I have always been very shy of showing any affectionate tendencies. Most of my acquaintances (and close friends even) think me curiously cold, and often wonder why I have never fallen in love or married. For obvious reasons I have never been able to tell them.

"Three or four years ago a little book by Coventry Patmore fell into my hands, and from its perusal resulted a strange blending of my religious and erotic notions. The desire to love and be loved is hard to drown, and, when I realized that homosexually it was neither lawful nor possible for me to love in this world, I began to project my longings into the next. By birth I am a Roman Catholic, and in spite of a somewhat skeptical temper, manage to remain one by conviction.

"From the doctrines of the Trinity, Incarnation, and Eucharist, I have drawn conclusions which would fill the minds of the average pietist with holy horror; nevertheless I believe that (granting the premises) these conclusions are both logically and theologically defensible. The Divinity of my fancied paradise resembles in no way the vapid conceptions of Fra Angelico, or the Quartier St. Sulpice. His physical aspect, at least, would be better represented by some Praxitilean demigod or Flandrin's naked, brooding boy.

"While these imaginings have caused me considerable moral disquietude, they do not seem wholly reprehensible, because I feel that the chief happiness I would derive by their realization would be mainly from the contemplation of the loved one, rather than from closer joys.

"I possess only a slight knowledge of the history and particulars of erotic mysticism, but it is likely that my notions are neither new nor peculiar, and many utterances of the few mystical writers with whose works I am acquainted seem substantially in accord with my own longings and conclusions. In endeavoring to find for them some sanction of valid authority, I have always sought corroboration from members of my own sex; hence am less likely to have fashioned my views after those of hypersensitive or hysterical women.

"You will rightly infer that it is difficult for me to say exactly how I regard (morally) the homosexual tendency. Of this much, however, I am certain, that, even, if it were possible, I would not exchange my inverted nature for a normal one. I suspect that the sexual emotions and even inverted ones have a more subtle significance than is generally attributed to them; but modern moralists either fight shy of transcendental interpretations or see none, and I am ignorant and unable to solve the mystery these feelings seem to imply.

"Patmore speaks boldly enough, in his way, and Lacordaire has hinted at things, but in a very guarded manner. I have neither the ability nor opportunity to study what the mystics of the Middle Ages have to say along these lines, and, besides, the medieval way of looking at things is not congenial to me. The chief characteristic of my tendency is an overpowering admiration for male beauty, and in this I am more akin to the Greeks.

"I have absolutely no words to tell you how powerfully such beauty affects me. Moral and intellectual worth is, I know, of greater value, but physical beauty I seemore clearly, and it appears to me the most vivid (if not the most perfect) manifestation of the divine. A little incident may, perhaps, reveal to you my feelings more completely. Not long ago I happened to see an unusually well-formed young fellow enter a house of assignation with a common woman of the streets. The sight filled me with the keenest anguish, and the thought that his beauty would soon be at the disposal of a prostitute made me feel as if I were a powerless and unhappy witness to a sacrilege. It may be that my rage for male loveliness is only another outbreaking of the old Platonic mania, for as time goes on I find that I long less for the actual youth before me, and more and more for some ideal, perfect being whose bodily splendor and loving heart are the realities whose reflections only we see in this cave of shadows. Since the birth and development within me of what, for lack of a better name, I term my homosexualized Patmorean ideal, life has become, in the main, a weary business. I am not despondent, however, because many things still hold for me a certain interest. When that interest dies down, as it is wont from time to time, I endeavor to be patient. God grant that, after the end here, I may be drawn from the shadow, and seemingly vain imaginings into the possession of their never-ending reality hereafter." Accessed March 22, 2016 from https://www.gutenberg.org/files/13611/13611-h/13611-h.htm#2_Footnote_208

----------
Ulrichs, Karl Heinrich. Karl Heinrich Urlichs and the United States.
See what else may be discovered about the 19th-century references by this early, German homosexual emancipation leader to the U.S. and the circulation of his works in the U.S.  The following citations all refer to the following volume of Ulrich's writings, translated by Michael Lombardi-Nash, and provided by him. 

Karl Heinrich Ulrichs. The Riddle of "Man-Manly" Love: The Pioneering Work on Male Homosexuality. Buffalo, New York: Prometheus Books, 1994. The references below include paragraph (§) numbers, facilitating finding the citation in the original German version.

In 1865, Ulrichs discusses philospher Arthur Schopenhauer's comment that "lack of women" can sometimes "give rise" to pederasty (here meaning male-male sexual relations) in "womenless colonies" -- California is cited as an example. What did Ulrichs hear and know about same-sex relations in California? (Book Two: Inclusa, p. 80, §79.)

In 1866, Ulrichs argues that women who dressed and fought as men in the recent American Civil War should not be denied their rights -- just as urnings had inalienable rights, regardless of what they wore. This is an amazing, early linking of what we call transgender rights with the rights of those who Gore Vidal called "same-sexers." (Book Five: Ara Spei: Moral, Philosophical and Social Studies, p. 237, §129.)

In 1867, Ulrichs reports, a German theater director named Feldtmann was arrested and jailed for having sex with three 19-year-old men, one named "Benguot from New Orleans." (Book Seven: Memnon I, p. 331, fn. 130.)

In 1867, Ulrichs says, a respected Methodist minister, Rev. Cartridge of Stockton, California, was caught with another man, causing an uproar in his congregation, though not all of his parishioners condmened the preacher; Cartridge was sentenced to five years in jail. California appears here, for a second time, as a hotbed of male-male carnality. (Book Nine: Argonauticus: Zastrow and the Urnings, p. 482 §13). 

Ulrichs cites Dr. Julius Hoffmann of Wurzburg, Bavaria, who in 1868 had worked in an insane asylum in Jacksonville, Illinois, in a section of an essay rejecting the notion that same-sex erotic activity was caused by masturbation (a popular medical theory). (Book Ten: Prometheus: Contributions to the Research into Nature, p. 557, §21). 

In 1869, Ulrichs relates, an American studying medicine in Wurzburg (probably the same Dr. Julius Hoffman, cited above), wished "to receive a blood transfusion" from Ulrichs "to be transformed into a uranian once for about two weeks" -- so that the he could "study uranianianism in himself during that time." (Book Nine: Argonauticus: Zastrow and the Urnings, p. 518-519, §60). 

Ulrichs reports that, by 1869, his publications had reached New York, St. Louis, and other Amerian cities. How did he know? Is there any existing evidence? (Book Ten: Prometheus: Contributions to the Research into Nature, p. 592, §64.)

In 1869 Ulrichs reports the "attempted lynching of a uranian" by a mob in Chicago. (Book Ten: Prometheus: Contributions to the Research into Nature, p. 584, §62.)

----------
Wilde, Oscar. Letter to Robert Ross, June 6, 1999. "I have made friends with a charming American youth, expelled from Harvard for immoral conduct. He is very amusing and good-looking." Oscar Wilde, Complete Letters. Edited by Merlin Holland. NY: Henry Hold and Company, 2000: 1152. WHO WAS THE AMERICAN YOUTH?

----------
Wilhelmj, Dr. A. "Might I suggest a missing missing document: Information on Dr. A. Wilhelmj, a San Franciscan winemaker born in Germany who in 1905 donated 40 Mark to Magnus Hirschfeld's Scientific-Humanitarian Committee, and also contributed with a photograph to the 1906 volume of Adolf Brand's Der Eigene. He seems to have been into uranian/naturist style photography in general, as he is also responsible for the top picture seen in this blogpost: http://callumjames.blogspot.se/2010/06/male-nudes-1906-7.html. A comment I wrote to the blogpost references a short - and non-queer - biographical article in the Pacific wine and spirit review. But surely there must be more?" SOURCE:  Facebook, June 21, 2017, 7:25 am. 

----------
This feature first published Feburary 17, 2016, 11:50 am EST  Last updated: June 21, 2017 7:31 am EST